It is a tax levied by the Government of India on the income of every person. The provisions governing the Income-tax are covered in the Income-tax Act, 1961.
Income-tax is levied on the annual income of a person. The year under the Income-tax Law is the period starting from 1st April and ending on 31st March of next calendar year. The Income-tax Law classifies the year as (1) Previous year, and (2) Assessment year.
The year in which income is earned is called as previous year and the year in which the income is charged to tax is called as assessment year.
e.g., Income earned during the period of 1st April, 2021 to 31st March, 2022 is treated as income of the previous year 2021-22. Income of the previous year 2021-22 will be charged to tax in the next year, i.e., in the assessment year 2022-23.
Income-tax is to be paid by every person. The term 'person' as defined under the Income-tax Act under section 2(3) covers in its ambit natural as well as artificial persons.
For the purpose of charging Income-tax, the term 'person' includes Individual, Hindu Undivided Families [HUFs], Association of Persons [AOPs], Body of individuals [BOIs], Firms, LLPs, Companies, Local authority and any artificial juridical person not covered under any of the above.
Thus, from the definition of the term 'person' it can be observed that, apart from a natural person, i.e., an individual, any sort of artificial entity will also be liable to pay Income-tax.
Taxes are collected by the Government through three means: a) voluntary payment by taxpayers into various designated Banks. For example, Advance Tax and Self Assessment Tax paid by the taxpayers, b) Taxes deducted at source [TDS] from the income of the receiver, and c) Taxes collected at source [TCS]. It is the constitutional obligation of every person earning income to compute his income and pay taxes correctly.
Under the Income-tax Law, different forms of returns are prescribed for different classes of taxpayers. The return forms are known as ITR forms (Income Tax Return Forms). The forms of return prescribed under the Income-tax Law for filing of return of income for the assessment year 2022-23 (i.e., financial year 2021-22) are as follows:
|Return Form||Brief Description|
|ITR - 1||Also known as SAHAJ is applicable to an individual having salary or pension income or income from one house property (not a case of brought forward loss) or income from other sources (not being lottery winnings and income from race horses, income taxable under section 115BBDA or income reffered in section 115BBDA or income referred in section 115BBE).|
|ITR - 2||It is applicable to an individual or an Hindu Undivided Family not having income chargeable to income-tax under the head “Profits or gains of business or profession”|
|ITR - 3||It is applicable to an individual or a Hindu Undivided Family who has any income chargeable to tax under the head business or profession|
|ITR - 4||Also known as SUGAM is applicable to individuals or Hindu Undivided Family or partnership firm who have opted for the presumptive taxation scheme of section 44AD/ 44ADA/44AE.|
|ITR - 5||This Form can be used by a person being a firm, LLP, AOP, BOI, artificial juridical person referred to in section 2(31)(vii), cooperative society and local authority. However, a person who is required to file the return of income under section 139(4A) or 139(4B) or 139(4C) or 139(4D) shall not use this form (i.e., trusts, political parties, institutions, colleges)|
|ITR - 6||It is applicable to a company, other than a company claiming exemption under section 11 (exemption under section 11 can be claimed by charitable/religious trust).|
|ITR - 7||It is applicable to a persons including companies who are required to furnish return under section 139(4A) or section 139(4B) or section 139(4C) or section 139(4D) (i.e., trusts, political parties, institutions, colleges).|
|ITR - V||It is the acknowledgement of filing the return of income.|
Filing of return is your duty and earns for you the dignity of consciously contributing to the development of the nation. Apart from this, your income-tax returns validate your credit worthiness before financial institutions and make it possible for you to access many financial benefits such as bank credits, etc.